Posted on March 22 2013 by Dathen Boccabella
Ever since its release in 2000, Majora’s Mask has stood out from the rest of the Zelda
series and video games as a whole. It involved revolutionary game play
mechanics, including the famous three day cycle, the advanced graphics,
and the unique storyline. It was the two year awaited sequel to the
legendary game, Ocarina of Time, and had great expectations placed on it. Upon release, mixed emotions were displayed towards the game. Zelda fans
either loved it or were greatly disappointed. That remains today with
many fans claiming it as their favorite of the series, while others
still frown at the mention of it.
A renowned part of Majora’s Mask is its storyline, which has
boggled fans for almost a decade. Although it appears as a simple
adventure on the surface, it is incredibly complex when thoroughly
analyzed. In the popular article ‘The Message of Majora’s Mask’, Hylian Dan gives insight into the perplexity of the game’s storyline. Although Majora’s Mask
is commonly referred to as being extremely unique, there is another
story we can compare it to, aiding our understanding of the mysterious
game. Interestingly enough, Majora’s Mask shares a lot in common with Victor Fleming’s famous 1939 film, The Wizard of Oz. (1)
Back in its time, The Wizard of Oz was an innovative film, having a great impact on the film industry; similar to the affect Majora’s Mask had on the gaming community. Today, The Wizard of Oz has the status of one of the greatest films of all time, although its original reception was similar to that of Majora’s Mask. Many people claimed it as a favorite, while others turned away.
The similarities between the two are surprisingly numerous; however
that isn’t to say there isn’t a clear distinction, as the differences
are also notable. Nevertheless, both convey the same message using the
concept of a parallel world. Chiefly, they are two different stories
which aim to communicate the same moral lesson.
One of the cover designs for the DVD release of the film.
It may even be a possibility that The Wizard of Oz inspired the developers of Majora’s Mask. This wouldn’t be the first time the Zelda series
has been influenced by icons of popular culture from American history.
Shigeru Miyamoto has stated that he named the original Legend of Zelda game, and hence the series, after the influential American women, Zelda Fitzgerald (1900-1948). (2)
Most of you will be familiar with the storyline of Majora’s Mask. It tells of the journey embarked on by Link, The Hero of Time, after the child timeline ending of Ocarina of Time. While searching for his beloved friend Navi
in the Lost Woods, Link is sidetracked when he is mugged by Skull Kid
and drawn into the parallel world of Termina. Link learns that Termina
is a land threatened by destruction from a menacing moon, destined to
crush the land in exactly three days. Controlling the moon is Skull Kid,
who is under the influence of the demonic Majora’s Mask. After
thoroughly exploring Termina, Link is able to awaken the four imprisoned
Guardians of the land, therefore stopping the moon, and defeat Majora.
Once peace has returned to the land of Termina, Link abandons his search
for Navi and returns home to Hyrule.
The Wizard of Oz is a musical telling the story of Dorothy
Gale, a young girl who lives a simple farm life with her Auntie Emily
and Uncle Henry in Kansas. Dorothy’s closest companion is her little
dog, Toto, but she is also friends with the farm hands, Hunk, Hickory
and Zeke. The story starts with Dorothy’s neighbor, Miss Almira Gulch,
being angry at Toto for chasing her cat and biting her leg. Miss Gulch
takes legal action to get Toto put down, leading Dorothy to run away
from home with Toto, for his safety. While running away, a twister
develops in the distance and Dorothy decides to return home, where her
family and friends have already taken refuge in the shelter. With
nowhere to go, Dorothy hides in her bedroom as the twister tears
through, rendering her unconscious. This twister is actually a portal
which warps Dorothy and her house to the magical land of Oz.
In Oz, the house coincidentally lands upon and kills the Wicked Witch
of the East, angering her sister, the Wicked Witch of the West. Dorothy
is praised by The Munchkins, a race of dwarf-like people,
for releasing them from the witch’s reign. Dorothy receives the dead
witch’s magical Ruby Slippers, which makes her sought after by the
Wicked Witch of the West. Right from the start all Dorothy wants is to
get back home to Kansas, and upon hearing of the Wizard of Oz, she
travels along the yellow brick road towards Emerald City, to seek the
wizard’s help. Along the way she encounters troubles from the Wicked
Witch of the West, but this is counterbalanced by the help she receives
from Glinda, The Good Witch of the North.
On her journey, Dorothy meets
people parallel to those she knows from Kansas, including Scarecrow,
Tinman and Cowardly Lion, who also have their respective favors to ask
the Wizard. The Wizard hesitantly agrees to help if Dorothy can bring
him the broomstick of the Wicked Witch of the West. Dorothy manages to
defeat the witch and gain the broomstick, only to discover that the
Wizard of Oz is a fraud with no real powers. The journey is one of
self-discovery and, in the end, Glinda helps Dorothy return home, where
the twister has passed through and no one is harmed.
The main similarity between The Wizard of Oz and Majora’s Mask
is clearly the message conveyed through the storyline. It is a message
of friendship and of appreciating those in your life, including what
they do for you, without taking them for granted. Both Link and Dorothy
are parentless, being entrusted into the care of others. In Dorothy’s
case, this is her Auntie and Uncle. For Link this is the Great Deku Tree
and the Kokiri. Parentless children can often feel misunderstood and
feel as if nobody accepts or cares for them. Dorothy runs away from home
to protect her beloved dog Toto from Miss Almira Gulch. Her Auntie and
Uncle don’t sympathize with her and agree with the legal demands to have
Toto put to sleep. This obviously upsets Dorothy, causing her to flee
in an attempt to save her best friend and companion. On the other hand,
Link journeys from Hyrule in search of his beloved friend and fairy
companion, Navi, whom he had been through many trials with.
Dorothy with her dog, Toto, and Link with his fairy companion, Navi, from Ocarina of Time.
Navi was always with Link throughout Ocarina of Time as Toto
is always with Dorothy. She could not bear her dog being gone, much in
the same way that Link is struggling having being left by Navi. If you
haven’t picked it up by now, Navi and Toto are one and the same, as Link
and Dorothy are, when comparing these two storylines. They are the one
friend that both characters abandoned all others for. Dorothy leaves her
friends and family in Kansas to protect Toto and Link leaves the
friends he had made in Hyrule to find Navi. It is apparent that those
they left behind weren’t yet consciously appreciated by them. Despite
the care Dorothy had received from Auntie Emily, and the childhood
friendship that Link had built with Zelda, they would cast all that
aside for their companion.
Link and Dorothy only began to appreciate those they once had when
they were journeying through Termina and Oz and witnessing such
malevolence. Link witnesses the shaky friendship between Termina’s four
Giant Guardians and Skull Kid, as well as other relationships during his
adventure. Link witnessed the destruction Skull Kid attempted to cause
only because he thought his friends had deserted him. Link must have
applied the same to his own situation and wondered how those he had left
felt. In these cases the saying was true; you never really appreciate
someone until they’re gone. Dorothy likewise came to this realization.
“Aunt Em was so good to me and I never appreciated it, running away and hurting her feelings.” -Dorothy
The person whom Dorothy appreciated the most was her Aunty, who was
more like a mother to her. Only when they were separated did Dorothy
realize this, and so began her longing to be back home in Kansas with
Auntie Em. During her quest in Oz, when in the castle of The Wicked
Witch of the West, Dorothy sees her Aunt in the witch’s crystal ball and
further longs to be with her. This is similar to Link’s memory
flashback of his parting with Zelda when he first encounters Skull Kid
atop the Clock Tower. This scene suggests that it was Zelda who Link
appreciated most, and was worried about how she felt, now that she was
“You are already leaving this land of Hyrule, aren’t you? Even though
it was only a short time, I feel like I’ve known you forever. I’ll
never forget the days we spent together in Hyrule… And I believe in my
heart that a day will come when I shall meet you again…” – Zelda
Dorothy sees her Aunt Em in the crystal ball and Link remembers his parting with Zelda.
As Link progressed more and more through his Terminian adventure, we
can imagine that this thought was in his head, and that his desire to
return to those he cared for only grew stronger, as Dorothy’s did. The
words ‘I shall meet you again’ were encouraging him to return home, and
only he had the power to fulfill them. At the conclusion to The Wizard of Oz,
Glinda assists in returning Dorothy home, as she so desired. Unlike
Link, who never says a word, Dorothy shares the lesson she has learned.
“Well, I think that it, that it wasn’t enough just to want to see
Uncle Henry and Aunty Em, and it’s that, if I ever go looking for my
heart’s desire again I won’t look any further than my own backyard,
because if it isn’t there, I never really lost it to begin with.” – Dorothy
Link also returns home to Hyrule at the conclusion of Majora’s Mask,
where he most likely fulfills Zelda’s words, being amongst his friends.
The ending cutscene of the game includes a very insightful farewell
from the Happy Mask Salesman.
“Shouldn’t you be returning home as well? Whenever there is a
meeting, a parting is sure to follow. However, that parting need not
last forever… Whether a parting be forever or merely for a short
time…That is up to you. … Well, both of us have gotten what we were
after…” – Happy Mask Salesman
These parting words seem to apply on so many levels. The Happy Mask
Salesman is a mysterious character who knows more than a normal human
would, especially in regards to Termina. In this quote, he displays a
divine knowledge of the moral lesson this journey held for Link, telling
him it is time to return home. Though the reference to the parting can
be applied to him, it also greatly alludes to Link’s parting with Zelda,
in that it need not last forever. Finally, he says they have obtained
what they were after. He had obtained Majora’s Mask, but Link hadn’t
found Navi. Instead, Link came to the realization that he no longer
needed to search, as he should return to those he does have.
The message that is portrayed in the catastrophe of Termina seems too
perfect for Link to be a mere coincidence, as does the lesson Dorothy
learns in her adventure. To set out with such abrupt goals, to be
sidetracked on such quests that hold the moral lesson needed within is
no ordinary occurrence. Both journeys seem too perfect for the troubles
being faced by Link and Dorothy, and although it doesn’t give them what
they want, it gives them the answers. It is likely that Link never found
Navi and that he never continued searching. The Wizard of Oz
leaves the ending open as to whether Almira Gulch pursues the death of
Toto; however, with the rebuilding necessary after the twister, one would
hope that such petty plans would diminish.
Dorothy sums up what she has learned and the Happy Mask Salesman bids Link farewell.
Both stories highlight the point that what those who care about you
think, and how they feel, is much more important than your own desires.
“Remember my sentimental friend, that a heart is not judged by how much you love, but by how much you are loved by others.” -The Wizard of Oz
“Your friends… I wonder…Do those people…think of you…as a friend?” -A Masked Child on the Moon
The journeys of Link and Dorothy were ones of self-discovery. They
ridded the lands from the evils plaguing them, being Majora and the two
wicked witches, while stopping to help others along the way. Link bought
happiness to many as he completed his Bomber’s Notebook and Dorothy
lifted the spirits of the Scarecrow, Tinman and Cowardly Lion. They
helped others as they journeyed, which in ways, helped them through
moral lessons. Interestingly, neither Dorothy or Link had the
capabilities to return to Kansas and Hyrule until they had learned their
lesson. Link couldn’t get past the metal doors in the Clock Tower until
he had completed his self-discovery. Glinda informs Dorothy that as
long as she had been wearing the Ruby Slippers she had the power to
return home. Upon inquiry of why Dorothy wasn’t informed of this
earlier, Glinda replies “Because she wouldn’t have believed me. She had
to learn it for herself.” The final line of The Wizard of Oz sums up both the message of Majora’s Mask and of itself, in a quote that the movie has made a famous catchphrase today.
“I’m not gonna leave here ever ever again, because I love you all … There’s no place like home.” – Dorothy
The Parallel World
The message is not the only similarity between Majora’s Mask and The Wizard of Oz.
Both stories decided to convey their message in a similar way,
involving the use of a parallel world. One of the main characteristics
of these parallel worlds is the people who greatly resemble those from
the original world, but with slight differences. In Termina, Link finds
himself surrounded by somewhat familiar people, and in Oz, Dorothy is
amongst parallels of those she knows at home. In both stories, the
originally underappreciated person doesn’t have a parallel. In Termina
we see no one similar to Zelda, and Oz bears no one similar to Auntie
Em. This emphasizes that they should be appreciated as it literally
generates an environment where they are gone, but everyone else remains.
Another part of the parallel worlds is that not everyone has a
counterpart and some people in the parallel world aren’t in the
original. In other words, there are people in Hyrule who have no
Terminian counterpart and there are people in Termina who have no Hylian
counterpart, which is the same as Kansas and Oz. Impa and Kafei are
examples of people without observed parallels. Thinking realistically
from that, it can be easily stated that Link and Dorothy don’t know and
don’t witness everyone in both worlds.
In Termina there are many parallel characters that Link comes across,
however none are terribly close to him in either land. The number of
people originally in Kansas that Dorothy knows is only seven, so in Oz,
four of these characters have parallels which form large roles
associated with Dorothy. Consistent with the message, her Aunt and Uncle
don’t have parallels, as Professor Marvel doesn’t, because he travels
between the worlds. The most notable parallels are Scarecrow, Tinman and
Cowardly Lion, who are parallels of the farm hands Hunk, Hickory and
Zeke. This trio remains friends with Dorothy in both worlds, and also
show that Oz parallels aren’t human as they are in Termina.
Scarecrow, Tinman, Dorothy and Cowardly Lion on their way to Emerald City.
As Dorothy journeys to Emerald City, she comes across Scarecrow,
Tinman and Cowardly Lion, who she promptly helps with their problems.
They agree to come with Dorothy to see the wizard and ask for a brain, a
heart and some courage respectively. These three virtues could be
interestingly seen as the power, wisdom and courage manifested in
holders of the Triforce.
Something that is never displayed in Majora’s Mask is whether
Link recognizes the people as counterparts. Dorothy doesn’t completely
recognize her three friends; however she states that they seem familiar.
Seeing familiar people around you who don’t recognize you would further
accentuate the message of appreciation.
“You’re the best friends anybody ever had and it’s funny, but I
feel as if I’ve known you all the time, but I couldn’t have could I.” – Dorothy
Another prominent parallel is that of Miss Almira Gulch, who is
fittingly, The Wicked Witch of the West, in the land of Oz. She fills
the position of the stories’ villain, also threatening Toto in Oz. As
far as villains go, there isn’t a correspondence between Majora’s Mask and The Wizard of Oz here. Majora bears no resemblance to The Wicked Witch of the West.
The most notable parallel in Oz, that corresponds to Majora’s Mask,
is the Wizard of Oz himself. When Dorothy is running away from home,
before she encounters the twister, she meets the man called Professor
Marvel. He is a magician of sorts, however he is fraudulent, as he fakes
his powers. When Dorothy reveals the Wizard of Oz to be fraudulent, it
is revealed that he is actually Professor Marvel. He is not a parallel
and therefore remains to be human. Professor Marvel is able to go
between the two worlds freely and therefore represents both the Happy
Mask Salesman and Skull Kid, who can travel between Hyrule and Termina.
In Oz, Professor Marvel used his deceptive skills to gain the status of a
wizard and ruler of the land.
The Wicked Witch of the West, and the Wizard of Oz before he is exposed.
Of course, a simple man would struggle to achieve such feats of
deception. Professor Marvel uses the technology of pyrotechnics, sound
amplification, and more to generate a more impressive looking
representation of a wizard, while he hides behind a curtain and controls
the wizard. In this regard, he is similar to Skull Kid who hides behind
a mask. Professor Marvel is also representative of the Happy Mask
Salesman. Professor Marvel is quite wise and intelligent, displaying
some higher knowledge of the message and the worlds, although he is
fraudulent. A large similarity is when the Wizard of Oz sends
Dorothy to get the broomstick of the Wicked Witch of the West. The
Wizard requests this before he would attempt to fulfill their wishes, as
the Happy Mask Salesman requests Majora’s Mask before he would return
link to his human form. Both state that it is a straightforward task.
“First you must prove yourselves worthy by performing a very small task. Bring me the broomstick of The Witch of the West.” -The Wizard of Oz
“Is it not a simple task? Why, to someone like you, it should by no means be a difficult task.”– Happy Mask Salesman
Beyond the elements of just people, we can find other notable
similarities. Those in Termina and Oz are more knowledgeable of the
other land, than those in Hyrule and Kansas are. Both groups of
inhabitants from the parallel worlds refer to the other world as a
higher world, and those who come from it as coming from the heavens
above. Both Dorothy and Skull Kid got this reception.
“Meet the young lady who fell from a star. She fell from the sky,
she fell very far, and Kansas she says is the name of the star.” – Glinda
“The imp returned to the heavens.” -Anju’s Grandmother
A standard law in fictional stories, when using parallel worlds, is
the difference in the speed of time flow. Seemingly, the time is
generally faster in the parallel world than the normal world, so that
the moral lesson is learned quickly, even though it seems like a long
time for the person. There’s nothing in Termina which definitively
indicates its relative time flow compared to Hyrule, although some vague indicators are present through the story of the Skull Kid. From this, assuming a faster time flow in Termina is
not an obscene conclusion as, in Oz, the time clearly flows much
faster, which fits for the message given in Majora’s Mask. At one
stage Dorothy sees Auntie Em in the witch’s crystal ball, stressing
about her whereabouts. Though it seems like days later to Dorothy, this
is most likely when Auntie Em is worrying about why Dorothy isn’t in the
shelter, meaning a day in Oz is only minutes in Kansas. Time flow
differences are also evident in the fact that Dorothy and her house
return to Kansas before her friends and family come out of the shelter
and find her in bed, even though Dorothy assumes that Auntie Em would
have stopped worrying about her prior to this. Thus, the length of the
twister probably matches the length of Dorothy’s adventure, although it
seemed like days to her.
“I tried to get back for days and days.” -Dorothy
The last feature worth mentioning in regards to the parallel worlds
is the map. Although the precise map of the movie is not available, we
can make some assumptions. Gregory Maguire, in his book Wicked, makes
some of these assumptions for us when he presents a map of Oz. (3)
This map isn’t too out there, as themes seem to suggest a similar layout
in the movie. Similar to Clock Town, Emerald City is a walled city
resting in the middle of the land. Oz is divided into four main regions,
each in a specific compass direction, as in Termina. Corresponding with
each area is a witch, seemingly similar to the Guardian Giants of
Termina. Furthermore, the map indicates a different terrain for each of
the compass directions, just like Termina. Around Emerald City there is
also a field, corresponding with Termina Field, that is observable in
These maps show the geographic similarities between Termina and Oz.
The two final parts to look at, when comparing these two famous
stories, are the portals leading to the parallel world and the reality
of the whole adventure. At the beginning of Majora’s Mask Link is
knocked unconscious twice. Firstly when he falls off Epona, and
secondly when he gets run into a tree stump by Epona. While taking
refuge in her room from the twister, Dorothy also gets knocked
unconscious. Although both the game and the movie start with the
characters getting knocked out, it is unlikely that their adventures
were dreamed. When they are knocked out they don’t suddenly begin their
adventure; they return to being fully conscious before their journey
into the parallel world commences. Assuming that these adventures are
not dreams leads us to looking at the portals that took them to the
lands of their adventure.
In Majora’s Mask there are two possibilities of a portal; the
black abyss or the winding corridor. As Link falls down the pit,
outlines of masks, clocks, ocarinas, and other items fly past him. The
winding corridor plays a type of magical warping sound effect. It’s
debated as to which one is actually the portal, with some people
proposing the part between the portals as a between-world limbo. We
can’t really decisively choose the exact portal to Termina from what the
game shows. On the contrary, the portal which takes Dorothy to Oz is
obviously the twister, with her house playing a role. When Dorothy wakes
up from being knocked unconscious she looks out her window where she
can see that her house is spinning around in the twister. In this
twister, she observes Almira Gulch symbolically transform into The
Wicked Witch of the West. The changes that take place in this portal are
mysterious ones as they cannot plausibly occur.
Once Dorothy’s house lands in Oz, she opens the front door to witness
the majesty of Oz. The movie up until this point was in sepia, however
upon opening the door, Oz is shown in full color. The door of Dorothy’s
house is like the metal door to the Clock Tower in this way. During
their adventures, the portals mean nothing to Link and Dorothy. Dorothy
thinks not about her house and Link can’t return through the Clock
Tower’s metal door. The portals only have relevance in getting to the
land and returning home. It is unknown how exactly Link gets back to
Hyrule, but Dorothy’s return is obviously through the powers of Glinda
and the Ruby Slippers. We see Dorothy returning to Kansas as her house
flies through the air and acts like a portal. Dorothy’s wish on the Ruby
Slippers to return home places her in bed, within her house, and warps
the house back to Kansas. That is what we can assume. Back in Kansas,
Dorothy wakes up in her bed, with the movie returning to sepia. Her
friends and family are gathered around her bed.
The various portals that lead to Oz and Termina.
Top Left: Dorothy looks out her window as her house is in the twister.
Top Right: Link falls into the abyss in the Lost Woods.
Bottom Left: Dorothy opens the door of her house and gazes into Oz.
Bottom Right: Deku Link and Tatl travel through the winding corridor into the Clock Tower, closing the metal door.
The only point remaining is whether the journeys of Link and Dorothy were a dream. Majora’s Mask
is almost certainly not a dream. There is no suggestion of it, and the
ending shows Link riding back through the Lost Woods, not waking up.
Nintendo made it clear that Link’s Awakening was a dream, and would’ve respectively done so in Majora’s Mask, if it was a dream. The original book that The Wizard of Oz is based on implies that it is a real sequence of events.
Something that makes it seem dreamlike is the aforementioned
difference in time flow. Because it seems like days to Dorothy, it is
hard for her to comprehend that only minutes have passed. Scientific
research states that dreams occur in real time. (4) Therefore,
it isn’t feasible for a many day journey to be dreamed in only a few
minutes. Once she has awoken, Dorothy recognizes Professor Marvel and
the farmhands as being in her adventure, leading even her to doubt its
probability, however she remains adamant that it occurred and that Oz is
a real place.
“But it wasn’t a dream, it was a place, and you, and you, and you
were there, but you couldn’t have been could you … This was a real
truly live place. … Doesn’t anybody believe me?” – Dorothy
When Dorothy arrives back in Kansas, there is no evidence of her ever
being in Oz. The hair styling she received in Emerald City has reverted
back to its original style, and it is likely that she no longer
possesses the Ruby Slippers. Some may claim this to be supportive of
this adventure being a dream, but more likely such precautions were
implemented by her wish upon the Ruby Slippers, to protect open
knowledge of the land of Oz. Auntie Em believed it was a dream and tries
to calm Dorothy with that assumption, though we know it wasn’t.
“We dream lots of silly things when we… you just had a bad dream.” -Auntie Em
Dorothy is back at home amongst her friends and family while Link rides towards Hyrule.
The most convincing evidence that Dorothy’s adventure was real comes
from Professor Marvel. He comes and visits Dorothy at this stage, to
check if she made it home. He knows of her adventure through Oz, though
he doesn’t state it plainly. He makes it seem as if his visit is solely
to check that Dorothy avoided the twister, when it is probable that he
is checking she made it back to Kansas safely.
“Hello there. Anybody home? I … uh … I just dropped by because
I heard the little girl got caught in the big… well she seems all right
now.” – Professor Marvel
The message that Link and Dorothy receive seems mysteriously
appropriate and fitting of their current situation. That may suggest
they are dreams or revelations, but evidence says otherwise. Being
fictional stories, they portray the message through a wild adventure,
and in the end, it’s not the main character that the message is truly
for. It’s for us. The developers of Majora’s Mask have accomplished their goal if we finish playing with a better appreciation for those in our lives. The filmmakers of The Wizard of Oz
have made their impact when we become less self centered and more
concerned about those who love us. The messages are obviously the same
one of friendship and appreciation, conveyed through similar ideas,
revolving around that of a parallel world. 2009 marks the 70th
anniversary of the legendary film, The Wizard of Oz. In
commemoration of that, I strongly encourage you to get a copy of the
film and watch it for yourself, to compare the similarities and
differences between it, and the memorable game, Majora’s Mask.
“Somewhere over the rainbow.”
1- Victor Fleming’s 1939 film starring Judy Garland, entitled The Wizard of Oz, is based on the 1900 children’s novel, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz,
by L. Frank Baum, illustrated by W.W. Denslow. The book and movie
contain quite different storylines, so for consistency purposes, this
article will make reference to the 1939 film, and not the novel, unless
2- “Zelda was the name of the wife of the famous novelist
Francis Scott Fitzgerald. She was a famous and beautiful woman from all
accounts, and I liked the sound of her name. So I took the liberty of
using her name for the very first Zelda title.” – Shigeru Miyamoto
3- Wicked is a book by Gregory Maguire, originally printed in 1995. It offers a backstory to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, however
these thoughts are solely based on personal interpretations and
elaborations on the part of the author, and hold no official connection
to the original book or 1939 movie. The map displayed is taken from this
4- Research from Psychologists Dement and Wolpert (1958),
shows that dreams tend to occur in real time. The simplified conclusion
of their research states that if a dream seems like it endured for
twenty minutes, it probably went for twenty minutes.